1. H. Zhang, H. Zeng, A. Priimagi, O. Ikkala, “Programmable responsive hydrogels inspired by classical conditioning algorithm“, Nature Communications 2019, 10, 3267.
  2. A. Berdin, H. Rekola, O. Sakhno, M. Wegener, A. Priimagi, “Continuously tunable polymer membrane laser“, Optics Express 2019, 27, 25634-25646.
  3. H. Zhang, M. Liu, W. Yang, L. Judin, T.I. Hukka, A. Priimagi, Z. Deng, P. Vivo, “Thionation Enhances the Performance of Polymeric Dopant‐Free Hole‐Transporting Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells“, Advanced Materials Interfaces 2019, 6, 1901036.
  4. V.Y. Chang, C. Fedele, A. Priimagi, A. Shishido, C.J. Barrett, “Photoreversible Soft Azo Dye Materials: Toward Optical Control of Bio‐Interfaces“, Advanced Optical Materials 2019, 7, 1900091.
  5. J. Vapaavuori, J. Grosuenaud, A. Siiskonen, A. Priimagi, C. Pellerin, C.G. Bazuin, “Photocontrol of Supramolecular Azo-Containing Block Copolymer Thin Films during Dip-Coating: Toward Nanoscale Patterned Coatings“, ACS Applied Nano Materials 2019, 6, 3526-3537.
  6. M. Liu, H. Zhang, D. Gedamu, P. Fourmont, H. Rekola, A. Hiltunen, S.G. Cloutier, R. Nechache, A. Priimagi, P. Vivo, “Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals for Next‐Generation Optoelectronics“, Small 2019, 15, 1900801.
  7. J. Salunke, X. Guo, Z. Lin, J.R. Vale, N.R. Candeias, M. Nyman, S. Dahlström, R. Österbacka, A. Priimagi, J. Chang, P. Vivo, “Phenothiazine-Based Hole-Transporting Materials toward Eco-friendly Perovskite Solar Cells“, ACS Applied Energy Materials 2019, 2, 3021-3027.
  8. M. Shin, J. Kim, Y.K. Jung, T.P. Ruoko, A. Priimagi, A. Walsh, B. Shin, “Low-dimensional formamidinium lead perovskite architectures via controllable solvent intercalation“, Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2019, 7, 3945-3951.
  9. O.M. Wani, R. Verpaalen, H. Zeng, A. Priimagi, A.P.H.J. Schenning, “An artificial nocturnal flower via humidity-gated photoactuation in liquid crystal networks“, Advanced Materials 2019, 31, 1805985.
  10. M. Saccone, M. Spengler, M. Pfletscher, K. Kuntze, M. Virkki, C. Wölper, G. Jansen, R. Gehrke, P. Metrangolo, A. Priimagi, M. Giese, “Photoresponsive halogen-bonded liquid crystals: the role of aromatic fluorine substitution“, Chemistry of Materials 2019, 31, 462–470.
  11. H. Zeng, M. Lahikainen, O.M. Wani, A. Berdin, A. Priimagi, “Liquid Crystal Polymer Networks and Elastomers for Light‐Fueled Robotics”, in Photoactive Functional Soft Materials: Preparation, Properties, and Applications (Ed. Quan Li), 2019pp. 197-226.


  1. M. Lahikainen, H. Zeng, A. Priimagi, “Reconfigurable photoactuator through synergistic use of photochemical and photothermal effects“, Nature Communications 2018, 9, 4148. PDF
  2. J.K. Salunke, N.A. Durandin, T.P. Ruoko, N.R. Candeias, P. Vivo, E. Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, T. Laakonen, A. Priimagi, “Halogen-Bond-Assisted Photoluminescence Modulation in Carbazole-Based Emitter“, Scientific Reports 2018, 8, 14431. PDF
  3. M. Saccone, K. Kuntze, Z. Ahmed, A. Siiskonen, M. Giese, A. Priimagi, “Ortho-fluorination of azophenols increases the mesophase stability of photoresponsive hydrogen-bonded liquid crystals“, Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2018, 6, 9958–9963.
  4. M. Virkki, A. Maurice, A. Forni, M. Sironi, P.F. Brevet, P. Metrangolo, M. Kauranen, A. Priimagi, “On molecular optical nonlinearity of halogen-bond-forming azobenzenes“, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2018, 20, 28810–28817.
  5. M. Poutanen, Z. Ahmed, L. Rautkari, O. Ikkala, A. Priimagi, “Thermal Isomerization of Hydroxyazobenzenes as a Platform for Vapor Sensing“. ACS Macro Letters 2018, 7, 381-386. PDF
  6. P. Szell, A. Siiskonen, L. Catalano, G. Cavallo, G. Terraneo, A. Priimagi, D. L. Bryce, P. Metrangolo, “Halogen-Bond Driven Self-Assembly of Triangular Macrocycles“. New Journal of Chemistry 2018, 42, 10467-10471.
  7. J. Vapaavuori, C. G. Bazuin, A. Priimagi, “Supramolecular Design Principles for Efficient Photoresponsive Polymer-Azobenzene Complexes“, Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2018, 6, 2168-2188. PDF
  8. O. M. Wani, H. Zeng, P. Wasylczyk,  A. Priimagi, “Programming photo-response in liquid crystal polymer actuators with laser projector“, Advanced Optical Materials 2018, 6, 1700949.
  9. H. Zeng, O. M. Wani, P. Wasylczyk, A. Priimagi, “Light-driven, caterpillar-inspired miniature inching robot, Macromolecular Rapid Communications 2018, 39, 1700224.
  10. H. Zeng, P. Wasylczyk, D. S. Wiersma,  A. Priimagi, “Light robots: bridging the gap between microrobotics and photomechanics in soft materials“, Advanced Materials 2018, 30, 1703554.


  1. Z. Ahmed, A. Siiskonen, M. Virkki, A. Priimagi, “Controlling azobenzene photoswitching through combined ortho-fluorination and -amination“, Chemical Communications 2017, 53, 12520-12523. SEE COVER
  2. J. E. Stumpel, M. Saccone. V. Dichiarante, O. Lehtonen, M. Virkki, P. Metrangolo, A. Priimagi, “Surface-relief gratings in halogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: A concentration-dependence study“, Molecules 2017, 22, 1844.
  3. J. E. Stumpel, J. ter Schiphorst, A. P. H. J. Schenning, “Photoresponsive polymer hydrogel coatings that change topography”. In “Responsive polymer surfaces“, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: 2017, 159-173.
  4. J. Vapaavuori, A. Siiskonen, V. Dichiarante, A. Forni, M. Saccone, T. Pilati, C. Pellerin, A. Shishido, P. Metrangolo, A. Priimagi, “Supramolecular control of liquid crystals by doping with halogen-bonding dyes“, RSC Advances 2017, 7, 40237-40242.
  5. H. Zeng, O. M. Wani, P. Wasylczyk, R. Kaczmarek, A. Priimagi, “Self-regulating iris based on light-actuated liquid crystal elastomer, Advanced Materials 2017, 29, 1701814. SEE COVER
  6. O. M. Wani, H. Zeng, A. Priimagi, “A light-driven artificial flytrap, Nature Communications 2017, 8, 15546.
  7. N. Karimi, M. Virkki, A. Alberucci, O. Buchnev, M. Kauranen, A. Priimagi, G. Assanto, “Molding optical waveguides with nematicons“, Advanced Optical Materials 2017, 5, 1700199.
  8. P. Vivo, J. K. Salunke, A. Priimagi, “Hole-Transporting Materials for Printable Perovskite Solar Cells“, Materials 2017, 10, 1087.
  9. D. B. Shinde, J. K. Salunke, N. R. Candeias, F. Tinti, M. Gazzano, P. Wadgaonkar, A. Priimagi, N. Camaioni, P. Vivo, “Crystallisation-enhanced bulk hole mobility in phenothiazine-based organic semiconductors“, Scientific Reports 2017, 7, 46268.
  10. M. Saccone, A. Siiskonen, F. Fernandez-Palacio, A. Priimagi, G. Terraneo, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, “Halogen bonding stabilizes a cis-azobenzene derivative in the solid state: a crystallographic study“, Acta Crystallographica 2017, B73, 227-233.
  11. M. Saccone, F. Fernandez-Palacio, G. Cavallo, V. Dichiarante, M. Virkki, G. Terraneo, A. Priimagi, P. Metrangolo, “Photoresponsive ionic liquid crystals assembled via halogen bond: en route towards light-controllable ion transporters“, Faraday Discussions 2017, 203, 407-422.
  12. R. Milani, N. Houbenov, F. Fernandez-Palacio, G. Cavallo, A. Luzio, J. Haataja, M. Saccone, A. Priimagi, O. Ikkala, P. Metrangolo, “Hierarchical self-assembly of halogen-bonded block copolymer complexes into upright cylindrical domains“, Chem 2017, 2, 417-426.
  13. J. Wang, Y. Aihara, M. Kinoshita, J. Mamiya, A. Priimagi, A. Shishido, “Orientational optical nonlinearities is polymer-stabilized dye-doped liquid crystals“, Journal of the Japanese Liquid Crystal Society 2017, 21, 57-67.
  14. S. Schoelch, J. Vapaavuori, F. Rollet, C. J. Barrett, “The orange side of Disperse Red 1: humidity-driven color switching in supramolecular azo-polymer materials based on reversible dye aggregation“, Macromolecular Rapid Communications 2017, 38, 1600582.
  15. J. Noga, A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, M. Virkki, A. Priimagi, “Periodic surface structures induced by a single beam laser irradiation“, Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 2017, 302, 1600329.
  16. A. Siiskonen, A. Priimagi, “Benchmarking DFT methods with small basis sets for the calculation of halogen-bond strengths“, Journal of Molecular Modelling 2017, 23, 50.


  1. F. Fernandez-Palactio, M. Poutanen, M. Saccone, A. Siiskonen, G. Terraneo, G. Resnati, O. Ikkala, P. Metrangolo, A. Priimagi, “Efficient light-induced phase transitions in halogen-bonded liquid crystals“, Chemistry of Materials 2016, 28, 8314-8321.
  2. P. Hiekkataipale, T. I. Löbling, M. Poutanen, A. Priimagi, V. Abetz, O. Ikkala, A. H. Gröschel, “Controlling the shape of Janus nanostructures through supramolecular modification of ABC terpolymer bulk morphologies“, Polymer 2016, 107, 456-465.
  3. M. Poutanen, O. Ikkala, A. Priimagi, “Structurally controlled dynamics in azobenzene-based supramolecular self-assemblies in solid state“, Macromolecules 2016, 49, 4095-4101.
  4. G. Cavallo, G. Terraneo, A. Monfredini, M. Saccone, A. Priimagi, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, D. W. Bruce, “Superfluorinated ionic liquid crystals through mesomorphic, halogen-bonded anions“, Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2016, 55, 6300-6304.
  5. I. Neto, J. Andrade, A. S. Fernandes, C. P. Reis, J. K. Salunke, A. Priimagi, N. R. Candeias, P. Rijo, “Multicomponent petasis-borono mannich preparation of alkylaminophenols and antimicrobial activity studies“, ChemMedChem 2016, 11, 2015-2023.
  6. N. Akamatsu, M. Aizawa, R. Tatsumi, K. Hisano, A. Priimagi, A. Shishido, “Photoresponsive liquid-crystalline polymer films bilayered with an inverse opal structure“, Journal of Photopolymer Science and Technology 2016, 29, 145-148.
  7. F. Fernandez-Palacio, M. Saccone, A. Priimagi, G. Terraneo, T. Pilati, P. Metrangolo, G. Resnati, “Coordination networks incorporating halogen-bond donor sites and azo groups“, CrystEngComm 2016, 18, 2251-2257.
  8. N. Karimi, A. Alberrucci, M. Virkki, A. Priimagi, M. Kauranen, G. Assanto, “Quenching nematicon fluctuations via photo-stabilization“, Photonics Letters of Poland 2016, 8, 2-4.
  9. M. Virkki, O. Tuominen, M. Kauranen, A. Priimagi, “Photoinduced nonlinear optical response in azobenzene-functionalized mexylaminotriazine molecular glass“, Optics Express 2016, 24, 4964-4971.
  10. G. Cavallo, P. Metrangolo, R. Milani, T. Pilati, A. Priimagi, G. Resnati, G. Terraneo, “The halogen bond“, Chemical Reviews 2016, 116, 2478-2601.


  1. J. Vapaavuori, I. Heikkinen, V. Dichiarante, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, G. Sabat, C. G. Bazuin, A. Priimagi, C. Pellerin, “Photomechanical energy transfer to photopassive polymers through hydrogen and halogen bonds“, Macromolecules 2015, 48, 7535-7542.
  2. J. Vapaavuori, R. H. A. Ras, M. Kaivola, C. G. Bazuin, A. Priimagi, “From partial to complete optical erasure of azobenzene-polymer gratings: effect of molecular weight“, Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2015, 3, 11011-11016.
  3. M. Saccone, G. Cavallo, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, A. Priimagi, “Halogen-bonded photoresponsive materials“, Topics in Current Chemistry 2015, 359, 147-166.
  4. M. Virkki, O. Tuominen, A. Forni, M. Saccone, P. Metrangolo, G. Resnati, M. Kauranen, A. Priimagi, “Halogen bonding enhances nonlinear optical response in poled supramolecular polymers“, Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2015, 3, 3003-3006.
  5. M. Saccone, V. Dichiarante, A. Forni, A. Goulet-Hanssens, G. Cavallo, J. Vapaavuori, G. Terraneo, C. J. Barrett, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, A. Priimagi, “Supramolecular hierarchy among halogen and hydrogen bond donors in light-induced surface patterning“, Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2015, 3, 759-768. SEE COVER
  6. J. Wang, Y. Aihara, M. Kinoshita, J. Mamiya, A. Priimagi, A. Shishido, “Laser-pointer-induced self-focusing effect in hybrid-aligned liquid-crystals“, Scientific Reports 2015, 5, 9890-9896.


  1. J. E. Koskela, J. Vapaavuori, R. H. A. Ras, A. Priimagi, “Light-driven surface patterning of supramolecular polymers with extremely low concentration of photoactive molecules“, ACS Macro Letters 2014, 3, 1196-2000.
  2. A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, A. Priimagi, “High-modulation-depth surface-relief gratings using s-s polarization configuration in supramolecular polymer-azobenzene complexes“, Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2014, 118, 23279-23284.
  3. J. Vapaavuori, A. Goulet-Hanssens, I. Heikkinen, C. J. Barrett, A. Priimagi, “Are two azo groups better than one? Investigating the photoresponse of polymer–bisazobenzene complexes“, Chemistry of Materials 2014, 26, 5089-5096.
  4. A. Goulet-Hanssens, T. C. Corkery, A. Priimagi, C. J. Barrett, “Effect of head group size on the photoswitching applications of azobenzene Disperse Red 1 analogues“, Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2014, 2, 7505-7512. SEE COVER
  5. A. Priimagi, C. J. Barrett, A. Shishido, “Recent twists in photoactuation and photoalignment control“, Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2014, 2, 7155-7162. SEE COVER
  6. J. E. Koskela, V. Liljeström, J. Lim, E. E. Simanek, R. H. A. Ras, A. Priimagi, M. A. Kostiainen, “Light-fuelled transport of large dendrimers and proteins“, Journal of the American Chemical Society 2014, 136, 6850-6853.
  7. N. Akamatsu, W. Tashiro, K. Saito, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, T. Ikeda, J. Takeya, S. Fujikawa, A. Priimagi, A. Shishido, “Facile strain analysis of largely bending films by a surface-labelled grating method“, Scientific Reports 2014, 4, 5377.
  8. A. Priimagi, A. Shevchenko, “Azopolymer-Based Micro- and Nanopatterning for Photonic Applications“, Journal of Polymer Science B: Polymer Physics 2014, 52, 163-182.
  9. R. J. Moerland, J. E. Koskela, A. Kravchenko, S. van der Vegte, M. Simberg, M. Kaivola, A. Priimagi, R. H. A. Ras, “Large-area arrays of three-dimensional plasmonic subwavelength-sized structures from azopolymer surface-relief gratings“, Materials Horizons 2014, 1, 74-80. SEE COVER
  10. M. Saccone, G. Terraneo, T. Pilati, G. Cavallo, A. Priimagi, P. Metrangolo, G. Resnati, “Azobenzene-based difunctional halogen-bond donor: towards the engineering of photoresponsive cocrystals“, Acta Crystallographica 2014, B70, 149-156.


  1. A. Priimagi, G. Cavallo, P. Metrangolo, G. Resnati, “The halogen bond in the design of functional supramolecular materials: recent advances“, Accounts of Chemical Research 2013, 46, 2686-2695.
  2. Y. Aihara, M. Kinoshita, J. Wang, J. Mamiya, A. Priimagi, A. Shishido, “Polymer stabilization enhances the orientational optical nonlinearity of oligothiophene-doped nematic liquid crystals“, Advanced Optical Materials 2013, 1, 787-794. SEE COVER
  3. J. Vapaavuori, A. Priimagi, A. J. Soininen, J. Ruokolainen, M. Kaivola, O. Ikkala, E. Kasemi, N. Canilho, “Photoinduced surface patterning of azobenzene-containing supramolecular dendrons, dendrimers and dendronized polymers“, Optical Materials Express 2013, 3, 711-722.
  4. J. Vapaavuori, Z. Mahimwalla, R. Chromik, M. Kaivola, A. Priimagi, C. Barrett, “Nanoindentation study of light-induced softening of supramolecular and covalently functionalized azo polymers“, Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2013, 1, 2806-2810.
  5. A. Priimagi, K. Ogawa, M. Virkki, J. Mamiya, M. Kauranen, A. Shishido, “High-contrast photoswitching of nonlinear optical response in crosslinked ferroelectric liquid-crystalline polymers“, Advanced Materials 2012, 24, 6410-6415. SEE COVER
  6. A. Priimagi, M. Saccone, G. Cavallo, A. Shishido, T. Pilati, P. Metrangolo, G. Resnati, “Photoalignment and surface-relief grating formation are efficiently combined in low-molecular-weight halogen-bonded complexes“, Advanced Materials 2012, 24, OP345-OP352.
  7. A. Priimagi, G. Cavallo, A. Forni, M. Gorynsztejn-Leben, M. Kaivola, P. Metrangolo, R. Milani, A. Shishido, T. Pilati, G. Resnati, G. Terraneo, “Halogen bonding versus hydrogen bonding in driving self-assembly and performance of light-responsive supramolecular polymers“, Advanced Functional Materials 2012, 22, 2572-2579. SEE COVER
  8. Z. Mahimwalla, K. G. Yager, J. Mamiya, A. Shishido, A. Priimagi, C. J. Barrett, “Azobenzene photomechanics: prospects and potential applications“, Polymer Bulletin 2012, 69, 967-1006.
  9. R. Ahmed, A. Priimagi, C. F. J. Faul, I. Manners, “Redox-active, organometallic surface-relief gratings from azobenzene-containing polyferrocenylsilane block copolymers“, Advanced Materials 2012, 24, 926-931.
  10. J. E. Koskela, J. Vapaavuori, J. Hautala, A. Priimagi, C. F. J. Faul, M. Kaivola, R. H. A. Ras, “Surface-relief gratings and stable birefringence inscribed over a broad spectral range in supramolecular polymer-bisazobenzene complexes“, Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2012, 116, 2363-2370.
  11. A. Priimagi, A. Shimamura, M. Kondo, T. Hiraoka, S. Kubo, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, T. Ikeda, A. Shishido, “Location of the azobenzene moieties within the liquid-crystalline polymer network can dictate the direction of photoinduced bending“, ACS Macro Letters 2012, 1, 96-99.
  12. A. Shimamura, A. Priimagi, J. Mamiya, T. Ikeda, Y. Yu, C. J. Barrett, A. Shishido, “Simultaneous analysis of optical and mechanical properties of closs-linked azobenzene-containing liquid-crystalline polymer films“, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2011, 3, 4190-4196.
  13. A. Shimamura, A. Priimagi, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, T. Ikeda, A. Shishido, “Photoinduced bending upon pulsed irradiation in azobenzene-containing crosslinked liquid-crystalline polymers“, Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics & Materials 2011, 20, 405-413.
  14. M. Virkki, M. Kauranen, A. Priimagi, “Different chromophore concentration dependence of pho-toiduced birefringence and second-order susceptibility during all-optical poling“, Applied Physics Letters 2011, 99, 183309.
  15. J. Vapaavuori, V. Valtavirta, T. Alasaarela, J. Mamiya, A. Priimagi, A. Shishido, M. Kaivola, “Efficient Surface Structuring and Photoalignment of Supramolecular Polymer-Azobenzene Complexes through Rational Chromophore Design“, Journal of Materials Chemistry 2011, 21, 15437-15441).
  16. A. Kravchenko, A. Shevchenko, V. Ovchinnikov, A. Priimagi,  M. Kaivola, “Optical interference lithography using azobenzene-functionalized polymers for micro- and nanopatterning of silicon“, Advanced Materials 2011, 23, 4174-4177.
  17. T. Alasaarela, D. Zheng, L. Huang, A. Priimagi, B. Bai, A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, “Single-layer one-dimensional nonpolarizing guided-mode resonance filters under normal incidence“, Optics Letters 2011, 36, 2411-2413.
  18. A. Priimagi, A. Shevchenko, M. Kaivola, F. J. Rodriguez, M. Kauranen, P. Rochon, “High and stable photoinduced anisotropy in guest-host polymer mediated by chromophore aggregation“, Optics Letters 2010, 35, 1813-1815.
  19. J. Vapaavuori, A. Priimagi, M. Kaivola, “Photoinduced surface-relief gratings in supramolecular bisazobenzene-polymer complexes“, Journal of Materials Chemistry 2010, 20, 5260-5264.
  20. A. Priimagi, M. Kaivola, M. Virkki, F. J. Rodriguez, M. Kauranen, “Suppression of chromophore aggregation in amorphous polymeric materials: towards more efficient photoresponsive behavior“, Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics & Materials 2010, 19, 57-73.
  21. A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, P. Rochon, “Efficient surface-relief gratings in hydrogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes“, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2009, 1, 1183-1189.
  22. M. Ivanov, A. Priimagi, P. Rochon, “Effect of saturation on the diffraction efficiency of holographically recorded gratings in azopolymer films“, Optics Express 2009, 17, 844-849.
  23. A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions“, Chemistry of Materials 2008, 20, 6358-6363.
  24. K. Lindfors, A. Priimagi, T. Setälä, A. Shevchenko, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, “Local polarization of tightly focused unpolarized light“, Nature Photonics 2007, 1, 228-231.
  25. A. Priimagi, M. Kaivola, F. J. Rodriguez, M. Kauranen, “Enhanced photoinduced birefringence in polymer-dye complexes: hydrogen bonding makes a difference“, Applied Physics Letters 2007, 90, 121103.
  26. A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, M. Kauranen, “Real-time monitoring of all-optical poling by two-beam second-harmonic generation“, Optics Letters 2006, 31, 2178.
  27. A. Priimagi, S. Cattaneo, R. H. A. Ras, S. Valkama, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, “Polymer-dye complexes: a facile method for high doping level and aggregation control of dye molecules“, Chemistry of Materials 2005, 17, 5798.