The iLiNS project is an international research collaboration that grew out of a shared commitment to accelerate progress in preventing child malnutrition. The project involves clinical trials in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi. Our research group, together with scientists from the University of Malawi, is coordinating two of the iLiNS trials.
The iLiNS-project was built on earlier work with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) in Ghana and Malawi (see the LCNI-trials), suggesting that provision of such supplements could improve healthy growth among infants and young children in low-income populations.
Of the two trials our group is co-coordinating, iLiNS-DOSE (registration number NCT00945698) is a 6 arm-dose finding trial, in which a total of 1932 healthy six-month old infants were randomized to receive for 12 months either a delayed intervention or one of five alternative formulations and daily dosing regimens of LNS. The main outcome measure is length gain during the intervention, but there are also numerous secondary outcome measures, such as a new technique to assess physical activity when the children are approximately 18 months old. Child growth will be monitored also during a 2-year post-intervention follow-up period. Several observations sub-studies assess the social and economic feasibility of the LNS intervention in early childhood.
iLiNS-DYAD (registration number NCT01239693) is a 3 arm trial, in which we enrolled a total of 1391 pregnant women. The primary purpose of this trial is to assess if healthy growth can be promoted and infant stunting (linear growth retardation) prevented by provision of nutrient and energy-dense lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to the mother-baby dyad during gestation, lactation and in infancy.
To address the study question, the enrolled women were randomized into receiving either standard antenatal care (which includes supplementation with iron and folate containing capsules), supplementation with multiple micronutrient capsules, or supplementation with LNS. The women continued to be supplemented during the first 6 months of lactation and LNS intervention was continued for children in the LNS group also from age 6 to 18 months.
The main outcome variable in iLiNS-DYAD is child length at 18 months of age but maternal and child health is documented also with a wide array of other variables. Several observational sub-studies assess the social and economic feasibility of the maternal LNS intervention. An add-on component look at the predictors of intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery, with special reference on oral, reproductive tract and placental infections and inflammation. A second major set of add-on studies investigates the development of infant intestinal microbiota and its association to child growth and nutritional status (the BMMI project).
- Barua P, Beeson JG, Maleta K, Per Ashorn P, Stephen J, Rogerson SJ. The impact of early life exposure to Plasmodium falciparum on the development of naturally acquired immunity to malaria in young Malawian children. Malar J. 2019 Jan 18;18(1):11. doi: 10.1186/s12936-019-2647-8.
- Prado EL, Yakes Jimenez E, Vosti S, Stewart R, Stewart CP, Somé J, Pulakka A, Ouédraogo JB, Okronipa H, Ocansey E, Oaks B, Maleta K, Lartey A, Kortekangas E, Hess SY, Brown K, Bendabenda J, Ashorn U, Ashorn P, Arimond M, Adu-Afarwuah S, Souheila Abbeddou S, Dewey K. Path analyses of risk factors for linear growth faltering in four prospective cohorts of young children in Ghana, Malawi and Burkina Faso. BMJ Glob Health 2019;4:e001155. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001155
- Oaks BM, Jorgensen JM, Baldiviez LM, Adu-Afarwuah S, Maleta K, Okronipa H, Sadalaki J, Lartey A, Ashorn P, Ashorn U, Vosti S, Allen LH, Dewey KG. Prenatal Iron Deficiency and Replete Iron Status Are Associated with Adverse Birth Outcomes, but Associations Differ in Ghana and Malawi. J Nutr. 2019 Jan 9. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxy278. [Epub ahead of print]
- Adu-Afarwuah S, Young RT, Lartey A, Okronipa H, Ashorn P, Ashorn U, Oaks BM, Arimond M, Dewey KG. Maternal and Infant Supplementation with Small-Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Increases Infants’ Iron Status at 18 Months of Age in a Semiurban Setting in Ghana: A Secondary Outcome Analysis of the iLiNS-DYAD Randomized Controlled Trial. J Nutr. 2019 Jan 8. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxy225. [Epub ahead of print]
- Bendabenda J, Patson N, Hallamaa L, Mbotwa J, Mangani C, Phuka J, Prado EL, Cheung YB, Ashorn U, Dewey KG, Ashorn P, Maleta K. The association of malaria morbidity with linear growth, hemoglobin, iron status, and development in young Malawian children: a prospective cohort study. BMC Pediatr. 2018 Dec 28;18(1):396. doi: 10.1186/s12887-018-1378-2.
- Hemsworth J, Arimond M, Kumwenda C, Rehman AM, Maleta K, Ashorn U, Keogh R, Ferguson EL. Comparison of an interactive 24-h recall and weighed food record for measuring energy and nutrient intakes from complementary foods among 9-10-month-old Malawian infants consuming lipid-based nutrient supplements. Br J Nutr. 2018 Dec;120(11):1262-1271. doi: 10.1017/S0007114518002374. Epub 2018 Oct 23.
- Gondwe A, Ashorn P, Ashorn U, Dewey KG, Maleta K, Nkhoma M, Mbotwa J, Jorgensen JM. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and maternal gestational weight gain are positively associated with birth outcomes in rural Malawi. PLoS One. 2018 Oct 23;13(10):e0206035. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206035. eCollection 2018.
- Leppilahti JM, Harjunmaa U, Järnstedt J, Mangani C, Hernández M, Tervahartiala T, Lopez R, Ashorn A, Ashorn P, Gieselmann D-R, Timo Sorsa T. Diagnosis of Newly Delivered Mothers for Periodontitis with a Novel Oral-Rinse aMMP-8 Point-of-Care Test in a Rural Malawian Population. Diagnostics (Basel). 2018 Sep 15;8(3). pii: E67. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics8030067.
- Jorgensen JM, Ashorn P, Ashorn U, Baldiviez LM, Gondwe A, Maleta K, Nkhoma M, Dewey KG. Effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements or multiple micronutrient supplements compared with iron and folic acid supplements during pregnancy on maternal haemoglobin and iron status. Matern Child Nutr. 2018 Oct;14(4):e12640. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12640. Epub 2018 Jul 26.
- Prado EL, Phuka J, Ocansey E, Maleta K, Ashorn P, Ashorn U, Adu-Afarwuah S, Oaks BM, Lartey A, Dewey KG. A method to develop vocabulary checklists in new languages and their validity to assess early language development. J Health Popul Nutr. 2018 May 11;37(1):13. doi: 10.1186/s41043-018-0145-1.
- Barua P, Chandrasiri UP, Beeson JG, Dewey KG, Maleta K, Ashorn P, Rogerson SJ. Effect of nutrient supplementation on the acquisition of humoral immunity to Plasmodium falciparum in young Malawian children.Malar J. 2018 Feb 7;17(1):74. doi: 10.1186/s12936-018-2224-6.
- Kumwenda C, Hemsworth J, Phuka J, Ashorn U, Arimond M, Maleta K, Prado EL, Haskell MJ, Dewey KG, Ashorn P. Association between breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age and growth and development among Malawian young children. Matern Child Nutr. 2018 Jul;14(3):e12582. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12582. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
- Ashorn P, Hallamaa L, Allen LH, Ashorn U, Chandrasiri U, Deitchler M, Doyle R, Harjunmaa U, Jorgensen JM, Kamiza S, Klein N, Maleta K, Nkhoma M, Oaks BM, Poelman B, Rogerson R, Stewart CP, Zeilani M, Dewey KG. Co-causation of reduced newborn size by maternal undernutrition, infections, and inflammation. Matern Child Nutr. 2018 Jul;14(3):e12585. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12585. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
- Harjunmaa U, Doyle R, Järnstedt J, Kamiza S, Jorgensen JM, Stewart CP, Shaw L, Hallamaa L, Ashorn U, Klein N, Dewey KG, Maleta K, Ashorn P. Periapical infection may affect birth outcomes via systemic inflammation. Oral Dis. 2018 Jul;24(5):847-855. doi: 10.1111/odi.12817. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
- Adu‐Afarwuah S, Young RT, Lartey A, Okronipa H, Ashorn P, Ashorn U, Zeilani M, Dewey KG. Supplementation during pregnancy with small‐quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements or multiple micronutrients, compared with iron and folic acid, increases women’s urinary iodine concentration in semiurban Ghana: A randomized controlled trial. Matern Child Nutr. 2018 Apr;14(2):e12570. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12570. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
- Prado EL, Ashorn U, Phuka J, Maleta K, Sadalaki J, Oaks BM, Haskell M, Allen LH, Vosti SA, Ashorn P, Dewey KG. Associations of maternal nutrition during pregnancy and post-partum with maternal cognition and caregiving.Matern Child Nutr. 2018 Apr;14(2):e12546. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12546. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
- Okronipa H, Adu-Afarwuah S, Lartey A, Ashorn P, Vosti SA, Young RR, Dewey KG. Maternal supplementation with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements during pregnancy and lactation does not reduce depressive symptoms at 6 months postpartum in Ghanaian women: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2018 Feb;21(1):55-63. doi: 10.1007/s00737-017-0752-7. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
- Adams KP, Ayifah E, Phiri TE, Mridha MK, Adu-Afarwuah S, Arimond M, Arnold CD, Cummins J, Hussain S, Kumwenda C, Matias SL, Ashorn U, Lartey A, Maleta KM, Vosti SA, Dewey KG. Maternal and Child Supplementation with Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements, but Not Child Supplementation Alone, Decreases Self-Reported Household Food Insecurity in Some Settings. J Nutr. 2017 Dec;147(12):2309-2318. doi: 10.3945/jn.117.257386. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
- Smith ER, Shankar AH, Wu LSF, Aboud S, Adu-Afarwuah S, Ali H, Agustina R, Arifeen S, Ashorn P, Bhutta ZA, Christian P, Devakumar D, Dewey KG, Friis H, Gomo E, Gupta P, Kæstel P, Kolsteren P, Lanou H, Maleta K, Mamadoultaibou A, Msamanga G, Osrin D, Persson LÅ, Ramakrishnan U, Rivera JA, Rizvi A, Sachdev HPS, Urassa W, West KP, Zagre N, Zeng L, Zhu Z, Fawzi WW, Sudfeld CR. Modifiers of the effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on stillbirth, birth outcomes, and infant mortality: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from 17 randomised trials in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet Global Health, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 11, e1090-e1100.
- Adams KP, Vosti SA, Ayifah E, Phiri TE, Adu‐Afarwuah S, Maleta K, Ashorn U, Arimond M. Willingness to pay for small‐quantity lipid‐based nutrient supplements for women and children: Evidence from Ghana and Malawi. Matern Child Nutr. 2017;e12518. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12518.
- Doyle RM, Harris K, Kamiza S, Harjunmaa U, Ashorn U, Nkhoma M, Dewey KG, Maleta K, Ashorn P, Klein N. Bacterial communities found in placental tissues are associated with severe chorioamnionitis and adverse birth outcomes. PLoS One. 2017 Jul 12;12(7):e0180167. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180167. eCollection 2017.
- Jorgensen JM, Arnold C, Ashorn P, Ashorn U, Chaima D, Cheung YB, Davis JC, Fan YM, Goonatilleke E, Kortekangas E, Kumwenda C, Lebrilla CB, Maleta K, Totten SM, Wu LD, Dewey KG. Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements During Pregnancy and Lactation Did Not Affect Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Bioactive Proteins in a Randomized Trial. J Nutr. 2017 Oct 1;147(10). doi: 10.3945/jn.117.252981. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
- Arimond M, Abbeddou S, Kumwenda C, Okronipa H, Hemsworth J, Jimenez EY, Ocansey E, Lartey A, Ashorn U, Adu-Afarwuah S, Vosti SA, Hess SY, Dewey KG. Impact of small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements on infant and young child feeding practices at 18 months of age: results from four randomized controlled trials in Africa. Matern Child Nutr. 2017 Jul;13(3). doi: 10.1111/mcn.12377. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
- Prado EL, Abbeddou S, Adu-Afarwuah S, Arimond M, Ashorn P, Ashorn U, Bendabenda J, Brown KH, Hess SY, Kortekangas E, Lartey A, Maleta K, Oaks BM, Ocansey E, Okronipa H, Ouédraogo JB, Pulakka A, Somé JW, Stewart CP, Stewart RC, Vosti SA, Yakes Jimenez E, Dewey KG. Predictors and pathways of language and motor development in four prospective cohorts of young children in Ghana, Malawi, and Burkina Faso. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2017 Nov;58(11):1264-1275. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12751. Epub 2017 May 23.
- Pulakka A, Cheung YB, Maleta K, Dewey KG, Kumwenda C, Bendabenda J, Ashorn U, Ashorn P. Effect of 12-month intervention with lipid-based nutrient supplement on the physical activity of Malawian toddlers: a randomised, controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2017 Feb;117(4):511-518. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517000290.
- Adu-Afarwuah S, Lartey A, Okronipa H, Ashorn P, Ashorn U, Zeilani M, Arimond M, Vosti SA, Dewey KG. Maternal Supplementation with Small-Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Compared with Multiple Micronutrients, but Not with Iron and Folic Acid, Reduces the Prevalence of Low Gestational Weight Gain in Semi-Urban Ghana: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Nutr. 2017 Apr;147(4):697-705. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.242909. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
- Nkhoma M, Ashorn P, Ashorn U, Dewey KG, Gondwe A, Mbotwa J, Rogerson S, Taylor SM, Maleta K. Providing lipid-based nutrient supplement during pregnancy does not reduce the risk of maternal P falciparum parasitaemia and reproductive tract infections: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017 Jan 17;17(1):35. doi: 10.1186/s12884-016-1215-2.
- Oaks BM, Stewart CP, Laugero KD, Adu-Afarwuah S, Lartey A, Vosti SA, Ashorn P, Dewey KG. Maternal plasma cholesterol and duration of pregnancy: A prospective cohort study in Ghana. Matern Child Nutr. 2017 Oct;13(4). doi: 10.1111/mcn.12418. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
- Chandrasiri UP, Fowkes FJ, Beeson JG, Richards JS, Kamiza S, Maleta K, Ashorn P, Rogerson SJ. Association between malaria immunity and pregnancy outcomes among Malawian pregnant women receiving nutrient supplementation. Malar J. 2016 Nov 9;15(1):547.
- Prado EL, Phuka J, Maleta K, Ashorn P, Ashorn U, Vosti SA, Dewey KG. Provision of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements from Age 6 to 18 Months Does Not Affect Infant Development Scores in a Randomized Trial in Malawi. Matern Child Health J. 2016 Oct;20(10):2199-208. doi: 10.1007/s10995-016-2061-6.
- Klevor MK, Adu-Afarwuah S, Ashorn P, Arimond M, Dewey KG, Lartey A, Maleta K, Phiri N, Pyykkö J, Zeilani M, Ashorn U. A mixed method study exploring adherence to and acceptability of small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) among pregnant and lactating women in Ghana and Malawi. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016 Aug 30;16:253. doi: 10.1186/s12884-016-1039-0.
- Adu-Afarwuah S, Lartey A, Okronipa H, Ashorn P, Peerson JM, Arimond M, Ashorn U, Zeilani M, Vosti S, Dewey KG. Small-quantity, lipid-based nutrient supplements provided to women during pregnancy and 6 mo postpartum and to their infants from 6 mo of age increase the mean attained length of 18-mo-old children in semi-urban Ghana: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Sep;104(3):797-808. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.134692. Epub 2016 Aug 17.
- Shaw L, Harjunmaa U, Doyle R, Mulewa S, Charlie D, Maleta K, Callard R, Walker AS, Balloux F, Ashorn P, Klein N. Distinguishing the Signals of Gingivitis and Periodontitis in Supragingival Plaque: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Malawi. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016 Sep 16;82(19):6057-67. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01756-16. Print 2016 Oct 1.
- Prado EL, Abbeddou S, Adu-Afarwuah S, Arimond M, Ashorn P, Ashorn U, Brown KH, Hess SY, Lartey A, Maleta K, Ocansey E, Ouédraogo JB, Phuka J, Somé JW, Vosti SA, Yakes Jimenez E, Dewey KG. Linear Growth and Child Development in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Malawi. Pediatrics. 2016 Aug;138(2). pii: e20154698. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-4698. Epub 2016 Jul 29.
- Stewart RC, Ashorn P, Umar E, Dewey KG, Ashorn U, Creed F, Rahman A, Tomenson B, Prado EL, Maleta K. The impact of maternal diet fortification with lipid-based nutrient supplements on postpartum depression in rural Malawi: a randomised-controlled trial. Matern Child Nutr. 2017 Apr;13(2). doi: 10.1111/mcn.12299. Epub 2016 Apr 5.
- Gondwe A, Munthali A, Ashorn P, Ashorn U. Investigating Preterm Care at the Facility Level: Stakeholder Qualitative Study in Central and Southern Malawi. Matern Child Health J. 2016 Jul;20(7):1441-7. doi: 10.1007/s10995-016-1942-z. Epub 2016 Mar 14.
- Bendabenda J, Alho L, Ashorn U, Cheung YB, Dewey KG, Vosti SA, Phuka J, Maleta K, Ashorn P. The effect of providing lipid-based nutrient supplements on morbidity in rural Malawian infants and young children: a randomized controlled trial. Public Health Nutr. 2016 Jul;19(10):1893-903. doi: 10.1017/S1368980016000331. Epub 2016 Mar 9.
- Adu-Afarwuah S, Lartey A, Okronipa H, Ashorn P, Zeilani M, Baldiviez LM, Oaks BM, Vosti S, Dewey KG. Impact of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement on hemoglobin, iron status and biomarkers of inflammation in pregnant Ghanaian women. Matern Child Nutr. 2017 Apr;13(2). doi: 10.1111/mcn.12262. Epub 2016 Feb 29.
- Prado EL, Maleta K, Ashorn P, Ashorn U, Vosti SA, Sadalaki J, Dewey KG. Effects of maternal and child lipid-based nutrient supplements on infant development: a randomized trial in Malawi. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Mar;103(3):784-93. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.114579. Epub 2016 Feb 3.
- Blanton LV, Charbonneau MR, Salih T, Barratt BJ, Venkatesh S, Ilkaveya O, Subramanian S, Mark J. Manary MJ, Trehan I, Jorgensen JM, Fan YM, Henrissat B, Leyn SA, Rodionov DA, Osterman AL, Maleta KM, Newgard CB, Ashorn P, Dewey KG, Gordon JI. Gut bacteria that prevent growth impairments transmitted by microbiota from malnourished children. Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275). pii: aad3311. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3311.
- Charbonneau MR, David O’Donnell D, Blanton LV, Totten SM, Davis JCC, Barratt MJ, Cheng J, Guruge J, Talcott M, Bain JR, Muehlbauer MJ, Ilkayeva O, Wu C, Struckmeyer T, Barile D, Mangani C, Jorgensen J, Fan YM, Maleta K, Dewey KG, Ashorn P, Newgard CB, Lebrilla C, Mills DA, Gordon JI. Sialylated Milk Oligosaccharides Promote microbiota-dependent growth in models of infant undernutrition. Cell. 2016 Feb 25;164(5):859-71. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.01.024. Epub 2016 Feb 18.
- Oaks BM, Laugero KD, Stewart CP, Adu-Afarwuah S, Lartey A, Ashorn P, Vosti SA, Dewey KG. Late-Pregnancy Salivary Cortisol Concentrations of Ghanaian Women Participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Prenatal Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements. J Nutr. 2016 Feb;146(2):343-52. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.219576. Epub 2016 Jan 13.
- Hemsworth J, Kumwenda C, Arimond M, Maleta K, Phuka J, Rehman AM, Vosti SA, Ashorn U, Filteau S, Dewey KG, Ashorn P, Ferguson EL. Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Increase Energy and Macronutrient Intakes from Complementary Food among Malawian Infants. J Nutr. 2016 Feb;146(2):326-34. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.215327. Epub 2016 Jan 6.
- Stewart CP, Oaks BM, Laugero KD, Ashorn U, Harjunmaa U, Kumwenda C, Chaima D, Maleta K, Ashorn P, Dewey KG. Maternal cortisol and stress are associated with birth outcomes, but are not affected by lipid-based nutrient supplements during pregnancy: an analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial in rural Malawi. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015 Dec 22;15(1):346. doi: 10.1186/s12884-015-0793-8.
- Harjunmaa U, Järnstedt J, Alho L, Dewey KG, Cheung YB, Deitchler M, Ashorn U, Maleta K, Klein NJ, Ashorn P. Association between maternal dental periapical infections and pregnancy outcomes: results from a cross-sectional study in Malawi. Trop Med Int Health. 2015 Nov;20(11):1549-1558. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12579. Epub 2015 Aug 18.
- Kumwenda C, Hemsworth J, Phuka J, Arimond M, Ashorn U, Maleta K, Ashorn P, Haskell M, Dewey KG. Factors associated with breast milk intake among 9-10 month-old Malawian infants. Matern Child Nutr. 2016 Oct;12(4):778-89. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12199. Epub 2015 Aug 11.
- Maleta KM, Phuka J, Alho L, Cheung YB, Dewey KG, Ashorn U, Phiri N, Phiri T, Vosti SA, Zeilani M, Kumwenda C, Bendabenda J, Pulakka A, Ashorn P. Provision of 10-40g lipid-based nutrient supplements from 6 to 18 months of age does not prevent linear growth faltering in Malawi. J Nutr, 2015 Aug;145(8):1909-15. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.208181. Epub 2015 Jun 10.
- Harjunmaa U, Järnstedt J, Dewey KG, Ashorn U, Maleta K, Vosti SA, Ashorn P. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health – a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi. Matern Child Nutr. 2016 Jan;12(1):99-110. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12204. Epub 2015 Jul 21.
- Ashorn P, Alho L, Ashorn U, Cheung YB, Dewey KG, Gondwe A, Harjunmaa U, Lartey A, Phiri N, Phiri TE, Vosti SA, Zeilani M, Maleta K. The impact of LNS provision on child growth, iLiNS-DYAD-M, RCT, Malawi. J Nutr. 2015 Jun;145(6):1345-53. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.207225. Epub 2015 Apr 29.
- Chandrasiri UP, Fowkes FJ, Richards JS, Langer C, Fan YM, Taylor SM, Beeson JG, Dewey KG, Maleta K, Ashorn P, Rogerson SJ. The impact of lipid-based nutrient supplementation on anti-malarial antibodies in pregnant women in a randomized controlled trial. Malar J. 2015 May 10;14(1):193. doi: 10.1186/s12936-015-0707-2.
- Ashorn U, Alho L, Arimond M, Dewey KG, Maleta K, Phiri N, Phuka J, Vosti SA, Zeilani M, Ashorn P. Malawian mothers consider lipid-based nutrient supplements acceptable for children throughout a one-year intervention, but deviation from user recommendations is common. J Nutr. 2015 Jul;145(7):1588-95. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.209593. Epub 2015 May 20.
- Adu-Afarwuah S, Lartey A, Okronipa H, Ashorn P, Zeilani Z, Peerson JM, Arimond M, Vosti S, Dewey KG. Lipid-based nutrient supplement increases the birth size of infants of primiparous women in Ghana. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr;101(4):835-46. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.091546. Epub 2015 Feb 11.
- Ashorn P, Alho L, Ashorn U, Cheung YB, Dewey KG, Harjunmaa U, Lartey A, Nkhoma M, Phiri N, Phuka J, Vosti SA, Zeilani M, Maleta K. The impact of lipid-based nutrient supplement provision to pregnant women on newborn size in rural Malawi: A randomised controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Feb;101(2):387-97. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.088617. Epub 2014 Dec 10.
- Gondwe A, Munthali AC, Ashorn P, Ashorn U. Perceptions and experiences of community members on caring for preterm newborns in rural Mangochi, Malawi: a qualitatative study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014 Dec 2;14:399. doi: 10.1186/s12884-014-0399-6.
- Pulakka A, Ashorn U, Cheung YB, Dewey KG, Maleta K, Vosti SA, Ashorn P. Effect of 12-month intervention with lipid-based nutrient supplements on physical activity of 18-month-old Malawian children: a randomised, controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Feb;69(2):173-8. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.138. Epub 2014 Jul 16.
- Pulakka A, Ashorn P, Gondwe A, Phiri N, Ashorn U. Malawian parents’ perceptions of physical activity and child development: a qualitative study. Child Care Health Dev. 2014 Nov 17. doi: 10.1111/cch.12218.
- Kumwenda C, Dewey KG, Hemsworth J, Ashorn P, Maleta K, Haskell MJ. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not decrease breast milk intake of Malawian infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Mar;99(3):617-23.
- Pulakka A, Cheung Y, Ashorn U, Penpraze V, Maleta K, Phuka J, Ashorn P. Feasibility and validity of the ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer in measuring physical activity of Malawian toddlers. Acta Paediatr. 2013 Dec;102(12):1192-8. doi: 10.1111/apa.12412.
- Arimond M, Zeilani M, Jungjohann S, Brown KH, Ashorn P, Allen LH, Dewey KG. Considerations in developing lipid-based nutrient supplements for prevention of undernutrition: experience from the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS) Project. Matern Child Nutr. 2015 Dec;11 Suppl 4:31-61. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12049. Epub 2013 May 6.