Lungwena Child Survival Study (LCSS) is an observational, prospective cohort study, carried out in the Lungwena area in Mangochi District, Malawi. The aim of the study is to describe health and its determinants among women and their children and to identify factors that might either promote or hinder healthy growth and development among pregnant women, children and adolescents in rural Malawi.
A total of 795 pregnant women were enrolled to the cohort study in 1995 – 1996. The women underwent an obstetric examination monthly until delivery. Delivery events were recorded right after birth and birth weights were recorded for those babies who were born at a health facility. All children were visited at home monthly until 18 months of age and then every three months until the age of 5 years. At the age of 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 15 years, the children were examined at a health facility. The study was continued at the age of 21 years as Lungwena Young Adults Study (LYAS). At the beginning of the follow-up, data collection was centered around nutrition, growth, morbidity and mortality. Subsequent data collection rounds have added elements of lung health, social and emotional wellbeing, school performance and development.
Results from this study have been described in several scientific publications and PhD theses. The main findings that have led to subsequent intervention trials include a very high incidence of and adverse consequences from preterm birth and infant and child stunting.
- Teivaanmäki T, Bun Cheung Y, Pulakka A, Virkkala J, Maleta K, Ashorn P. Height gain after two-years-of-age is associated with better cognitive capacity, measured with Raven’s coloured matrices at 15-years-of-age in Malawi. Matern Child Nutr. 2017 Apr;13(2). doi: 10.1111/mcn.12326. Epub 2016 Jun 29.
- Teivaanmäki T, Cheung YB, Kortekangas E, Maleta K, Ashorn P. Transition between stunted and nonstunted status: both occur from birth to 15 years of age in Malawi children. Acta Paediatr. 2015 Dec;104(12):1278–85.
- Chirwa ED, Griffiths P, Maleta K, Ashorn P, Pettifor JM, Norris SA. Postnatal growth velocity and overweight in early adolescents: a comparison of rural and urban African boys and girls. Am J Hum Biol. 2014 Sep-Oct;26(5):643-51. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.22575.
- Gandhi M, Teivaanmaki T, Maleta K, Duan X, Ashorn P, Cheung YB. Child development at 5 years of age predicted mathematics ability and schooling outcomes in Malawian adolescents. Acta Paediatr. 2013 Jan;102(1):58-65.
- Gandhi M, Ashorn P, Maleta K, Teivaanmäki T, Duan X, Cheung YB. Height gain during early childhood is an important predictor of schooling and mathematics ability outcomes. Acta Paediatr. 2011 Aug;100(8):1113-8.
- Cheung YB, Ashorn P. Continuation of linear growth failure and its association with cognitive ability are not dependent on initial length-for-age: a longitudinal study from 6 months to 11 years of age. Acta Paediatr. 2010 Nov;99(11):1719-23.
- Cheung YB, Gladstone M, Maleta K, Duan X, Ashorn P. Comparison of four statistical approaches to score child development: a study of Malawian children. Trop Med Int Health. 2008 Aug;13(8):987-93.
- Gladstone MJ, Lancaster GA, Jones AP, Maleta K, Mtitimila E, Ashorn P, Smyth RL. Can Western developmental screening tools be modified for use in a rural Malawian setting? Arch Dis Child. 2008 Jan;93(1):23-9.
- Aaby P, Vessari H, Nielsen J, Maleta K, Benn CS, Jensen H, Ashorn P. Sex differential effects of routine immunizations and childhood survival in rural Malawi. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Aug;25(8):721-7.
- Hartikainen H, Maleta K, Kulmala T, Ashorn P. Seasonality of gestational weight gain and foetal growth in rural Malawi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):294-9.
- Maleta K, Virtanen SM, Espo M, Kulmala T, Ashorn P. Childhood malnutrition and its predictors in rural Malawi. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2003 Oct;17(4):384-90.
- Maleta K, Virtanen S, Espo M, Kulmala T, Ashorn P. Timing of growth faltering in rural Malawi. Arch Dis Child. 2003 Jul;88(7):574-8.
- Maleta K, Virtanen SM, Espo M, Kulmala T, Ashorn P. Seasonality of growth and the relationship between weight and height gain in children under three years of age in rural Malawi. Acta Paediatr. 2003 Apr;92(4):491-7.
- Ashorn P, Maleta K, Espo M, Kulmala T. Male biased mortality among 1-2 year old children in rural Malawi. Arch Dis Child. 2002 Nov;87(5):386-7.
- Espo M, Kulmala T, Maleta K, Cullinan T, Salin ML, Ashorn P. Determinants of linear growth and predictors of severe stunting during infancy in rural Malawi. Acta Paediatr. 2002;91(12):1364-70.
- Kulmala T, Vaahtera M, Ndekha M, Koivisto AM, Cullinan T, Salin ML, Ashorn P. Gestational health and predictors of newborn weight amongst pregnant women in rural Malawi. Afr J Reprod Health. 2001 Dec;5(3):99-108.
- Vaahtera M, Kulmala T, Hietanen A, Ndekha M, Cullinan T, Salin ML, Ashorn P. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in rural Malawi. Acta Paediatr. 2001 Mar;90(3):328-32.
- Vaahtera M, Kulmala T, Maleta K, Cullinan T, Salin ML, Ashorn P. Childhood immunization in rural Malawi: time of administration and predictors of non-compliance. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2000 Dec;20(4):305-12.
- Vaahtera M, Kulmala T, Maleta K, Cullinan T, Salin ML, Ashorn P. Epidemiology and predictors of infant morbidity in rural Malawi. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2000 Oct;14(4):363-71.
- Kulmala T, Vaahtera M, Rannikko J, Ndekha M, Cullinan T, Salin ML, Ashorn P. The relationship between antenatal risk characteristics, place of delivery and adverse delivery outcome in rural Malawi. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000 Nov;79(11):984-90.
- Kulmala T, Vaahtera M, Ndekha M, Koivisto AM, Cullinan T, Salin ML, Ashorn P. The importance of preterm births for peri- and neonatal mortality in rural Malawi. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2000 Jul;14(3):219-26.
- Vaahtera M, Kulmala T, Ndekha M, Koivisto AM, Cullinan T, Salin ML, Ashorn P. Antenatal and perinatal predictors of infant mortality in rural Malawi. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2000 May;82(3):F200-4.
- Kulmala T, Vaahtera M, Ndekha M, Cullinan T, Salin ML, Koivisto AM, Ashorn P. Socio-economic support for good health in rural Malawi. East Afr Med J. 2000 Mar;77(3):168-71.