Theses and publications

PhD Theses

Selected journal articles 2012-


  • Zabihi, A., Juoksukangas, J., Hintikka, J., Salminen, T., Mäntylä, A., Vaara, J., Frondelius, T., & Vippola, M. (2024). Influence of displacement amplitude on fretting-induced friction and wear of steel in oil-lubricated contact. Tribology International, 193, Article 109451.


  • Zabihi, A. , Juoksukangas, J.,  Hintikka, J., Honkanen, M., Mäntylä, A., Vaara, J., Frondelius, T., Vippola, M. 2023. An insight into the effect of rough surfaces and contact orientation on the fretting characteristics of quenched and tempered steel, Tribology International, Volume 189, 108963,
  • Raami, L., Varis, T., Valtonen, K., Wendler, M., Volkova, O., & Peura, P. (2023). Enhancing the cavitation erosion resistance of AISI 420-type stainless steel with quenching and partitioning. Wear, 526-527, [204897].
  • Haiko, O., Pallaspuro, S., Javaheri, V., Kaikkonen, P., Ghosh, S., Valtonen, K., Kaijalainen, A., & Kömi, J. (2023). High-stress abrasive wear performance of medium-carbon direct-quenched and partitioned, carbide-free bainitic, and martensitic steels. Wear, 526-527, [204925].


  • Haiko, O., Valtonen, K., Kaijalainen, A., Javaheri, V., Kömi, J. (2022) High-stress abrasive wear characteristics of ultra-high strength press-hardening steel, Tribologia – Finnish Journal of Tribology 39(3−4):32-41(2022) (open access)
  • Savolainen, M., & Lehtovaara, A. (2022). An approach to investigating rolling element bearing damage under impact loading. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, 236(7). (open access).
  • Isakov, M., Rantalainen, O., Saarinen, T., & Lehtovaara, A. (2022). Large-Scale Fatigue Testing Based on the Rotating Beam Method. Experimental Techniques. (open access).
  • Javaheri, V., Sadeghpour, S., Karjalainen, P., Lindroos, M., Haiko, O., Sarmadi, N., Pallaspuro, S., Valtonen, K., Pahlevani, F., Laukkanen, A., & Kömi, J. (2022). Formation of nanostructured surface layer, the white layer, through solid particles impingement during slurry erosion in a martensitic medium-carbon steel. Wear, 496-497, [204301]. (open access).


  • Savolainen, M., & Lehtovaara, A. (2021). Development of damage detection parameters over the lifetime of a rolling element bearing. Tribologia – Finnish Journal of Tribology, 38(3−4), 61–71. (open access).
  • Bayat, R., & Lehtovaara, A. (2021). Tribofilm Formation of Simulated Gear Contact Along the Line of Action. Tribology Letters, 69(4), [126]. (open acess).
  • Savolainen, M., & Lehtovaara, A. (2021). An approach to investigating rolling element bearing damage under impact loading. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology.
  • Bayat R. and Lehtovaara, A. 2021. Scuffing evaluation of fully formulated environmentally acceptable lubricant using barrel-on-disc technique. Tribology International, 160:107002, (open acess).
  • Javaheri, V., Haiko, O., Sadeghpour, S., Valtonen, K., Kömi, J., Porter, D. 2021. On the role of grain size on slurry erosion behavior of a novel medium-carbon, low-alloy pipeline steel after induction hardening, Wear 203678, (open access)


  • Juoksukangas, J., Hintikka, J., Lehtovaara, A.,Mäntylä, A., Vaara, J., Frondelius, T. 2020. Avoiding the initial adhesive friction peak in fretting, Wear 460–461:203353, (open access)
  • Meuronen, J., Mäntylä, A., Vaara, J., Hintikka, J., Juoksukangas, J., Lehtovaara, A., & Frondelius, T. 2020. Fretting test rig with variable normal force. Rakenteiden Mekaniikka, 53(4), 308-328. (open access)
  • Bayat, R., & Lehtovaara, A. 2020. Friction and temperature mapping of environmentally acceptable gear oils. Tribologia – Finnish Journal of Tribology, 37(3−4), 4–12. (open access)
  • Varis, T., Suhonen, T., Laakso, J., Jokipii, M., Vuoristo, P. 2020. Evaluation of Residual Stresses and Their Influence on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of High Kinetic HVOF and HVAF-Sprayed WC-CoCr Coatings. J Therm Spray Tech 29:1365–1381(2020). (open access)
  • Haiko, O., Kaikkonen, P., Somani, M., Valtonen, K., Kömi, J. 2020. Characteristics of carbide-free medium-carbon bainitic steels in high-stress abrasive wear conditions, Wear, (open access)
  • Karhu, M., Lagerbom, J., Honkanen, M., Huttunen-Saarivirta, E., Kiilakoski, J., Vuoristo, P., Solismaa, S., Kivikytö-Reponen, P. 2020. Mining tailings as a raw material for glass-bonded thermally sprayed ceramic coatings: Microstructure and properties, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 40(12):4111-4121(2020),
  • Haiko, O., Javaheri, V., Valtonen, K., Kaijalainen, A., Hannula, J., Kömi, J. 2020. Effect of prior austenite grain size on the abrasive wear resistance of ultra-high strength martensitic steels, Wear, Volumes 454–455,
  • Saha, G., Valtonen, K., Saastamoinen, A., Peura, P., Kuokkala, V.-T. 2020. Impact-abrasive and abrasive wear behavior of low carbon steels with a range of hardness-toughness properties, Wear,Volumes 450–451,
  • Bayat, R. and Lehtovaara, A. 2020. EHL/mixed transition of fully formulated environmentally acceptable gear oils, Tribology International 146, (open access)
  • Juoksukangas, J., Nurmi, V., Hintikka, J, Honkanen, M., Vippola, M., Lehtovaara, A., Mäntylä, A., Vaara, J., Frondelius, T. 2020. Cracks and degradation layers in large flat-on-flat fretting contact with steels and cast iron, Tribology International 145
  • Hintikka, J., Mäntylä, A., Vaara, J., Frondelius, T., Juoksukangas, J., Lehtovaara, A. Running-in in fretting, transition from near-stable friction regime to gross sliding, Tribology International 143
  • Mäntylä, A., Hintikka, J., Frondelius, T., Vaara, J., Lehtovaara, A., Juoksukangas, J. 2020. Prediction of contact condition and surface damage by simulating variable friction coefficient and wear, Tribology International 143
  • Matikainen, V., Koivuluoto, H., Vuoristo, P. 2020. A study of Cr3C2-based HVOF- and HVAF-sprayed coatings: Abrasion, dry particle erosion and cavitation erosion resistance. Wear 446-447


  • Valtonen, K., Ratia, V., and Kuokkala, V.-T. 2019. Research methods for the evaluation of the relevance of application oriented laboratory wear tests. Finnish Journal of Tribology 36:46-53 (open access)
  • Haiko, O., Valtonen, K., Kaijalainen, A., Uusikallio, S., Hannula, J., Liimatainen, T., Kömi, J. 2019. Effect of tempering on the impact-abrasive and abrasive wear resistance of ultra-high strength steels, Wear 440–441(2019)
  • Kiilakoski, J, Langlade, C, Koivuluoto, H & Vuoristo, P. 2019, Characterizing the micro-impact fatigue behavior of APS and HVOF-sprayed ceramic coatings, Surface and Coatings Technology, 371:245-254(2019) (open access)
  • Valtonen, K., Ojala, N., Haiko, O., Kuokkala, V.-T. 2019. Comparison of various high-stress wear conditions and wear performance of martensitic steels, Wear 426–427:3-13(2019) (open access)
  • Chintha, A.R., Valtonen, K. Kuokkala, V.-T., Kundu, S. Peet, M., Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. 2019. Role of fracture toughness in impact-abrasion wear, Wear 428–429:430-437 (open access)
  • Hintikka, J., Mäntylä, A., Vaara, J., Frondelius, T., Lehtovaara, A. 2019. Stable and unstable friction in fretting contacts, Tribology International, 131, 73-82 (open access)
  • Juoksukangas, J., Nurmi, V., Hintikka, J, Vippola, M., Lehtovaara, A., Mäntylä, A., Vaara, J., Frondelius, T. 2019. Characterization of cracks formed in large flat-on-flat fretting contact, International Journal of Fatigue, 124, 361-370, (open access)
  • Valtonen, K., et al., Impact wear and mechanical behavior of steels in subzero conditions. Tribology International 129:476-493(2019). (open access)
  • Nurmi, V, et al. The formation and characterization of fretting-induced degradation layers using quenched and tempered steel,Tribology International, 131:258-267(2019) (open access)




  • Ojala N., Valtonen K., Antikainen, A., Kemppainen, A., Minkkinen, J., Oja, O., Kuokkala V.-T. Wear performance of quenched wear resistant steels in abrasive slurry erosion, Wear 354–355:21-31(2016)
  • Kiilakoski, J, Lindroos, M, Apostol, M, Koivuluoto, H, Kuokkala, V-T & Vuoristo, P 2016, ‘Characterization of High-Velocity Single Particle Impacts on Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic CoatingsJournal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol 25, pp. 1127-1137. DOI: 10.1007/s11666-016-0428-2
  • Juoksukangas, J, Lehtovaara, A & Mäntylä, A 2016, ‘Experimental and numerical investigation of fretting fatigue behavior in bolted joints’ Tribology International, vol 103, pp. 440-448. DOI: 10.1016/j.triboint.2016.07.021
  • Ratia, V., Valtonen, K., Kemppainen, A. & Kuokkala, V-T. The Role of Edge-Concentrated Wear in Impact-Abrasion Testing, Tribology Online 11(2):410-416(2016) (open access)
  • Vuorinen, E., Ojala, N., Heino, V. et al. 2016. Erosive and abrasive wear performance of carbide free bainitic steels – comparison of field and laboratory experiments, Tribology International 98:108–115(2016)
  • Ripoll, M., Ojala, N. et al. 2016. The role of niobium in improving toughness and corrosion resistance of high speed steel laser hardfacings, Materials and Design 99:509-520(2016)


  • Oksanen, V., Valtonen, K., Andersson, P., Vaajoki, A., Laukkanen, A., Holmberg, K. & Kuokkala, V. T.  2015. Comparison of laboratory rolling-sliding wear tests with in-service wear of nodular cast iron rollers against wire ropes, Wear 340-341:73-81(2015).
  • Ojala N., Valtonen K., Kivikytö-Reponen P., Vuorinen P. & Kuokkala V.-T. 2015. High speed slurry-pot erosion wear testing with large abrasive particles. Finnish Journal of Tribology 33:36-44(2015).
  • Molnar, W., Nugent, S., Lindroos, M., Apostol, M., Varga, M. 2015. Ballistic and numerical simulation of impacting goods on conveyor belt rubber, Polymer Testing 42:1–7.
  • Lindroos, M., Ratia, V., Apostol, M., Valtonen, K., Laukkanen, A., Molnar, W., Holmberg, K. & Kuokkala, V-T. 2014. The effect of impact conditions on the wear and deformation behavior of wear resistant steels. Wear 328-329:197–205(2015).
  • Lindroos, M., Apostol, M., Kuokkala, V-T., Laukkanen, A., Valtonen, K., Holmberg, K., Oja, O. 2015. Experimental study on the behavior of wear resistant steels under high velocity single particle impacts. International Journal of Impact Engineering 78:114-127.
  • Lindroos, M., Valtonen, K., Laukkanen, A., Holmberg, K., Kuokkala, V-T., Kemppainen, A. 2015 . Wear behavior and work hardening of high strength steels in high stress abrasion. Wear 322-323:32-40.
  • Ratia, V., Rojacz, H., Valtonen, K., Terva, J., Badisch, E. & Kuokkala, V.-T. 2015. Effect of multiple impacts on the deformation of wear resistant steels. Tribology Letters 57(15)(2015) 16 p.
  • Lindroos, M., Apostol, M., Heino, V., Valtonen, K., Laukkanen, A., Holmberg, K. & Kuokkala, V-T. 2015. The deformation, strain hardening and wear behavior of chromium alloyed Hadfield steel in abrasive and impact conditions. Tribology Letters, in press.
  • Björling, M. , Miettinen, J., Marklund, P., Lehtovaara, A., Larsson, R. 2015. The correlation between gear contact friction and ball on disc friction measurements. Tribology International 83:114-119.


  • Kivikytö-Reponen, P., Laukkanen, A., Apostol, M., Waudby, R., Andersson, T., Helle, A., Valtonen, K. &  Kuokkala V.-T. 2014. Modelling and testing of elastomer impact deformation under high strain rates, Tribology 8(1):48-54.
  • Sarlin, E., Apostol, M., Lindroos, M., Kuokkala, V.-T., Vuorinen, J., Lepistö, T., Vippola, M. 2014. The effect of test parameters on the impact resistance of a stainless steel/rubber/composite hybrid structure, Composite Structures 113:469-475.
  • Hintikka, J., Lehtovaara, A., Mäntylä, A. 2014. Non-Coulomb friction in gross sliding fretting conditions with aluminium bronze against quenched and tempered steel, Tribology International 79:151-161.
  • Huttunen-Saarivirta, E., Kuokkala, V.-T. & Pohjanne, P. 2014. Thermally grown oxide films and corrosion performance of ferritic stainless steels in simulated exhaust gas condensate, Corrosion Science 87:344-365.
  • Ojala, N., Valtonen, K., Kivikytö-Reponen, P., Vuorinen, P., Siitonen, P. & Kuokkala, V.-T. 2014. Effect of test parameters on large particle high speed slurry erosion testing, Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces 8(2): 98-104.
  • Ratia, V., Heino, V., Valtonen, K., Vippola, M., Kemppainen, A., Siitonen, P. & Kuokkala, V.-T. 2014. Effect of abrasive properties on the high-stress three-body abrasion of steels and hard metals. Finnish Journal of Tribology 32(1):3-18.
  • Vaajoki, A., Laukkanen, A., Waudby, R., Kivikytö-Reponen, P., Valtonen, K. & Kuokkala, V.-T. 2014. Tribological testing and modeling of elastomeric materials, Key Engineering Materials 604:87-90.
  • Holmberg, K., Laukkanen, A., Ghabchi, A. , Rombouts, M., Turunen, E., Waudby, R., Suhonen, T., Valtonen, K., Sarlin, E. 2014. Computational modelling based wear resistance analysis of thick composite coatings, Tribology International, 72:13-30.
  • Koivuluoto, H., Milanti, A., Bolelli, G., Lusvarghi, L., Vuoristo, P. 2014. High-pressure cold-sprayed Ni and Ni-Cu coatings: Improved structures and corrosion properties, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 23(1-2):98-103.
  • Shakun, A., Vuorinen, J., Hoikkanen, M., Poikelispää, M., Das, A. 2014. Hard nanodiamonds in soft rubbers: Past, present and future – A review, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 64:49-69.
  • Hulka, I., Uţu, I.D., Şerban, V.A., Vuoristo, P., Niemi, K., Koivuluoto, H. 2014. Properties and microstructure of HVOF thermally sprayed carbide based coatings, Solid State Phenomena, 216:261-266.
  • Sarlin, E., Apostol, M., Lindroos, M., Kuokkala, V.-T., Vuorinen, J., Vippola, M., Lepistö, T. 2014. Impact properties of novel corrosion resistant hybrid structures, Composite Structures 108:886-893.
  • Ojala, N., Valtonen K., Heino V., Kallio M., Aaltonen J., Siitonen P. & Kuokkala, V.-T. 2014. Effects of composition and microstructure on abrasive wear performance of quenched wear resistant steels. Wear 317(1–2): 225–232.


  • Ratia, V., Valtonen, K., Kemppainen, A. & Kuokkala, V.-T. 2013. Impact-abrasion wear of wear resistant steels at perpendicular and tilted angles. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, 227(8), 868-877.
  • Ratia, V., Miettunen, I. & Kuokkala, V.-T. 2013. Surface deformation of steels in impact-abrasion: The effect of sample angle and test duration. Wear 301(1–2), 94–101.
  • Ratia, V., Valtonen, K., Kemppainen, A., Vippola, M. & Kuokkala, V.-T. 2013. High-Stress Abrasion and Impact-Abrasion Testing of Wear Resistant Steels. Tribology Online 8(2),152-161 (open access).
  • Kinnunen, E., Miettunen, I., Somani, M.C., Porter, D.A., Karjalainen, L.P., Alamattila, I., Kemppainen, A., Liimatainen, T., Ratia, V. 2013. Development of a New Direct Quenched Abrasion Resistant Steel. International Journal of Metallurgical Engineering 2(1), 27-34.
  • Laurila J. Milanti, A., Nurminen, J., Kallio, M., Vuoristo, P. 2013. Microstructure and wear behaviour of a vanadium carbide reinforced weld coating, Wear 307 :142-149.
  • Zhang, X., Wang, L., Levänen, E. 2013. Superhydrophobic surfaces for the reduction of bacterial adhesion  (Review), RSC Advances 3(30):12003-12020.
  • Hintikka, J., Lehtovaara, A., Mäntylä, A. 2013. Fretting fatigue and friction of quenched and tempered steel in dry contact with aluminium bronze, Wear 308:155-165
  • Lindroos, M., Kuokkala, V.-T., Lehtovaara, A. & Kivikytö-Reponen, P. 2013. Effects of strain and strain rate on the abrasive wear behavior of high manganese austenitic steel. Key Engineering Materials 527, 211-216.
  • Oksanen, V., Andersson, P., Valtonen, K., Holmberg, K., Kuokkala, V.-T. 2013. Characterization of the wear of nodular cast iron rollers in contact with wire ropes. Wear 308:199-205.
  • Ruusila, V., Nyyssönen, T., Kallio, M., Vuorinen, P, Lehtovaara, A., Valtonen, K. & Kuokkala, V.-T. 2013. The effect of microstructure and lead content on the tribological properties of bearing alloys“, Journal of Engineering Tribology 227(8): 878-887.
  • Juoksukangas, J., Lehtovaara, A., Mäntylä, A. (2013) The effect of contact edge geometry on fretting fatigue behaviour in complete contacts, Wear 308:206-212.
  • Kannisto, E., Cura, E., Levänen, E.,Hannula, S.-P. 2013. Mechanical properties of Alumina Based Nanocomposites, Key Engineering Materials 527:101-106.
  • Gofman, I.V., Yudin, V., Orell, O., Vuorinen, J., Grigoriev, A., Svetlichnyi, M. 2013. Influence of the Degree of Crystallinity on the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of High-Performance Thermoplast at the High Temperatures Range (up to 250°C). Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part B: Physics 52(12):1848-1860.
  • Huttunen-Saarivirta, E, Vaganov, GV, Yudin, VE and Vuorinen, J. 2013. Characterization and corrosion protection properties of epoxy powder coatings containing nanoclays, Progress in Organic Coatings, 76(4):757-767.


  • Juoksukangas, J., Lehtovaara, A. , Mäntylä, A. 2012. Development of a complete contact fretting test device, Proc. IMechE, Part J: J. Engineering Tribology, 227(6):570–578.
  • Pöllänen, M., Suihkonen, R., Nevalainen, K., Koistinen, A., Suvanto, M.,  Vuorinen, J., Pakkanen, T., 2013. Morphological,  Mechanical,  Tribological,  and  Thermal  Expansion Properties of Organoclay Reinforced Polyethylene Composites Polymer Engineering and Science 53 (6):1279-1286.
  • Terva, J., Kuokkala, V.-T., Valtonen, K. & Kivikytö-Reponen, P. 2012. The edge effect of specimens in abrasive wear testing. Finnish Journal of Tribology 31(3-4), 27-35.
  • Bolelli, G., Bonferroni, B., Laurila, J., Lusvarghi, L., Milanti, A., Niemi, K., Vuoristo, P. 2012. Micromechanical properties and sliding wear behaviour of HVOF-sprayed Fe-based alloy coatings, Wear 276-277: 29-47.
  • Huttunen-Saarivirta, E., Honkanen, M., Tsipas, S.A., Omar, H. , Tsipas, D. (2012) Microstructure and elevated-temperature erosion-oxidation behaviour of aluminized 9Cr-1Mo Steel, Applied Surface Science 259:674-684.
  • Hulka, I., Serban, V.-A., Niemi, K., Vuoristo, P. , Wolf, J., “Comparison of Structure and Wear Properties of Fine-Structured WC-CoCr Coatings Deposited by HVOF and HVAF Spraying Processes”, Solid State Phenomena 188:422-427(2012).
  • Nyyssönen, T., Ruusila, V., Kallio, M., Vuorinen, P, Valtonen, K. & Kuokkala, V.-T. 2012. Leaded tin bronzes: the effects of casting method on dry sliding behaviour, Tribologia 31(1-2):4-11.