Hybrid Terrorizing: Developing a New Model for the Study of Global Media Events of Terrorist Violence (HYTE)

HYTE research consortium develops innovative research model for the theoretical, methodological and empirical study of global hybrid media events of terrorist violence. The multidisciplinary research project brings together media and communication studies, computational social sciences and international politics and security studies into a fruitful scholarly dialogue with each other. The consortium combines quantitative and qualitative research methods to analyse different types of media data, interviews and fieldwork material. HYTE establishes an international research network that produces new knowledge on hybrid terrorizing and creates a new platform for dialogue between academics, experts and policy makers.

Research consortium:

HYTE is directed by Research Director, Docent Katja Valaskivi, University of Tampere (COMET). 
The subproject leaders are Docent Johanna Sumiala, University of Helsinki, Faculty of Social Sciences, media and communication research, and Professor Aki-Mauri Huhtinen, National Defense University, Department of Leadership and Military Pedagogy.

Duration: 1.9.2017–31.8.2021

Funding: Academy of Finland

Contact: Katja Valaskivi, katja.valaskivi at uta.fi

Social Media: www.facebook.com/groups/1632909553434565/

Hybrid media events online seminar (19–20 August 2021) recordings (2) in Unitube / University of Helsinki


Blout, E. & Burkart, P. (2021). White supremacist terrorism in Charlottesville: Reconstructing ‘Unite the right’. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2020.1862850

Harju, A. A. & Huhtamäki, J. (2021). “#hellobrother needs to trend”: Methodological reflections on the digital and emotional afterlife of mediated violence. International Review of Sociology. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03906701.2021.1947951

Harju, A. A. (2019) Mediated commemoration, affect alienation, and why we are not all Charlie: solidarity symbols as vehicles for stance-taking. Thanatos Journal. 8(2): 165-202.  https://thanatosjournal.files.wordpress.com/2020/01/harju_mediated-commemoration.pdf

Harju, A. A. & Kotilainen, N. (eds.) (scheduled for spring 2022) Special Section on Encounters between Violence and Media. International Journal of Communication.

Kotilainen, N (2020) Atrocity. In Humanitarianism: Keywords. Edited by De Lauri, A. Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004431140

Kotilainen, N. (2020) Celebrity. In Humanitarianism: Keywords. Edited by De Lauri, A. Brill.

Kotilainen, N. (2018). Investigating and Understanding Social Media Image Flows: Framings of the Ghouta Attack in Mainstream Media and International Politics. In S. Pitkänen, & O. Kleemola (Eds.), Photographs and History: Interpreting Past and Present Through Photographs. (Cultural history – kulttuurihistoria). University of Turku. pp. 233-260.

Kotilainen, N. (2020) Humanitarian Soldier. In Humanitarianism: Keywords. Edited by De Lauri, A. Brill.

Kotilainen, N. (2020) Resilience of the Humanitarian Narrative in US Foreign Policy. In Contestations of Liberal Order : The West in Crisis?  Lehti, M.,  Pennanen, H-R, Jouhki, J. (Eds.) Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 233-261.

Kotilainen, N. (2020) Suffering. In Humanitarianism: Keywords. Edited by De Lauri, A. Brill.

Norri-Sederholm, T.; Huhtinen, A.-M.; Norvanto, E. (2020) Misinformation and Disinformation in Social Media as the Pulse of Finnish National Security. In Social Media and the Armed Forces, Springer, pp.  207-225. Available at: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-47511-6_12.

Huhtinen, A.-M. ja Melgin, E. (2020). Populismi, elitismi, rihmastot ja ”sotakone”. Hallitsemattomuuteen sopeutumisesta. Teoksessa ProCom – Hallitsematon viestintä. Toimittaneet Aki-Mauri Huhtinen ja Elina Melgin. ProCom, Helsinki: Viestinnän ammattilaiset ry., pp. 12-33, http://doi.org/10.31885/9789526857664.

Sartonen M.; Huhtinen A.-M.; Simola, P.; Kivimäki, V.-P.; Takamaa, K. (2020) A Framework for the Weapons of Influence. International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism. Volume 10: Issue 1.

Flyktman, J; Huhtinen, A.-M.; Koreman, L. (2020) Information Operations. In Routledge Handbook of International Cybersecurity, 1st Edition. Edited by Eneken Tikk and Mika Kerttunen. London: Routledge.

Huhtinen, A.-M. (2019) The Double Edge of the Information Sword. Chapter 11:  Sarfraz, M. (Ed.), (2019), Developments in Information Security and Cybernetic Wars, in progress, IGI Global, USA. This book is published in the IGI Global book series Advances in Information Security, Privacy, and Ethics (AISPE) (ISSN: 1948-9730; eISSN: 1948-9749). Available at: https://www.igi-global.com/book/developments-information-security-cybernetic-wars/216820

Huhtinen, A.-M.; Kangasmaa, T.; Hirvelä, A. (2019) The Opportunities of National Cyber Strategy and Social Media in the Rhizome Networks. Chapter 4: Sarfraz, M. (Ed.), (2019), Developments in Information Security and Cybernetic Wars, in progress, IGI Global, USA. Available at: https://www.igi-global.com/book/developments-information-security-cybernetic-wars/216820 .

Huhtinen, A.-M.; Särmä, S.; Streng, M., Kotilainen, N. (2019) Information influence in Hybrid Environment: Reflexive Control as an Analytical Tool for Understanding Warfare in Social media, International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism (IJCWT).

Norri-Sederholm, T.; Huhtinen, A.-M.; Paakkonen, H. (2018) Ensuring Public Safety Organisations’ Information Flow and Situation Picture in Hybrid Environments. International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism 8(1), pp. 12-24.

Robbins, J. & Sumiala, J. (eds.) (2017) Special issue on Ritual. Suomen Antropologi: Journal of the Finnish Anthropological Society.

Sumiala, J. (2020) Bella Ciao clangs on the balconies: The Art of Ritual Practice during Lockdown – some digital media ethnographic notes. Comunicazioni Sociali (under review).

Sumiala, J. (2019). Agony at a Distance. Investigating Digital Witnessing in YouTube. In Responsibility and Resistance. Ethics in Mediatized Worlds. Edited by Eberwein, T.; Karmasin, M.; Krotz, F. & Rath, M. Wiesbaden: Springer.

Sumiala, J. (2018). Digital Rituals and the Quest for Existential Security. In Digital Existence, Amanda Lagerkvist (ed.) London: Routledge.

Sumiala, J. (2018). Deconstructing Immortality? Identity work and the death of David Bowie in Digital Media. In A Networked Self: Birth, Life, Death. Edited by Papacharissi, Z. London: Routledge.

Sumiala, J. (2018). Ritual, Media and Immortality – The Case of a Tragic Masculine Hero. Death, Materiality and the Origin of Time. Edited by Seebach, S. H. & Willerslev, R. Oxford & New York: Berghahn.

Sumiala, Johanna (ed.) (2017) Special issue on Media, Religion and Conflict: Contemporary European Perspectives. Journal of Religion in Europe.

Sumiala, J. & Harju, A. A. (2019) “No More Apologies”: Violence as a Trigger for Public Controversy Over Islam in the Digital Public Sphere. Journal of Religion, Media and Digital Culture 8, pp. 132-152. doi: 10.1163/21659214-00801007

Sumiala, J. & Räisä, T. (2019). ‘Our Words Are Stronger’. Re-enforcing boundaries through ritual work in a violent news event. International Journal of Cultural Studies.

Sumiala, J. & Tikka, M. (2020) Digital media ethnographers on the move – An unexpected proposal. Journal of Digital Social Research, 2(1), pp. 39–55.

Sumiala, J. & Valaskivi, K. (eds.) (2017) Special section on Terror as Media Event, Television and New Media.

Sumiala, J.; Harju, A. A.; & Palonen, E.  (forthcoming 2021). Islam as the Folk Devil: Hashtag Publics and the Fabrication of Civilizationism in a Post-Terror Populist Moment. International Journal of Communication.

Sumiala, J.; Tikka, M. & Valaskivi, K. (2019) Charlie Hebdo, 2015: ‘Liveness’ and acceleration of conflict in a hybrid media event. Special Issue: Media and Terrorism in France. Media, War & Conflict, 12(2), pp. 202–218. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/1750635219846033

Sumiala, J.; Tikka, M. & Valaskivi, K. (2020) Just a ‘Stupid Reflex’? Digital Witnessing of the Charlie Hebdo Attacks and the Mediation of Conflict. In Budka, P. & Bräuchler, B., (Eds.) Theorising Media and Conflict. Berghahn.

Tikka, M. (2019) Ritualisation of Crisis Communication. Crowd-enabled responses to the Stockholm terror attack on Twitter. Nordicom Review 40(1), pp. 115–120. Available at: https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/nor-2019-0006

Toivanen, P.; Huhtamäki, J.; Valaskivi, K. & Tikka, M. (2020) Aihemallinnus hybridin mediatapahtuman ja merkitysten kierron tutkimuksessa. Media ja Viestintä 43(1), pp. 1–20.

Uusitalo, N.; Valaskivi, K. & Sumiala, J. (2021). Epistemic Modes in News Production: How Journalists Manage Ways of Knowing in Hybrid Media Events Involving Terrorist Violence. Journalism.

Uusitalo, N. & Valaskivi, K. (2020). The Attention apparatus: Conditions and affordances of news reporting in hybrid media events of terrorist violence. Journalism Practice.