Date and time: 2 December 2022, 5.25PM CET
Self-powered, highly unobtrusive, low-cost and accurate arterial pulse wave monitoring devices need to be developed to enable cost-efficient monitoring of entire cardiovascular disease risk groups. Wearable sensors with ultra-thin form factor have been recently developed to meet these demands, but the scalable fabrication of such devices has not been addressed sufficiently and the accuracy of the devices more in-depth investigation.
In our study, we report the development of a printing based fabrication process for a highly unobtrusive piezoelectric ultra-thin (t ~ 4,2 µm) e-tattoo arterial pulse wave sensor which utilizes only transparent and biocompatible polymer-based materials. The ferroelectric performance of the ultra-thin P(VDF-TrFE) material layer is optimized through the use of crosslinked PEDOT:PSS electrodes; this results in ~70 % and ~34 % improvements in remanent polarization (Pr) and coercive field (Ec), respectively, when compared to the sensors with pristine PEDOT:PSS electrodes. The ultra-thin form factor enables access to the high bending mode sensitivity of the P(VDF-TrFE) material layer; the maximum sensitivity value achieved in uniaxial and multiaxial bending is ~1700 pC N-1, which is ~50 times higher than the measured normal mode sensitivity. The increased sensitivity is linked to a specific set of direct piezoelectric coefficients using combination of experimental results, statistical analysis and finite element modeling.
Finally, the accuracy of the e-tattoo sensor is demonstrated in the non-invasive measurement of radial artery pulse wave by comparing the signal to that obtained with reference device from 7 study subjects.